Policy Brief: Endangered Species
This policy brief aims at presenting physician-scientist views on endangered species which is considered as an environmental issue. Organisms in danger of becoming extinct are regarded as endangered species because of environmental problems that threaten them. As per this brief, the number of Ph.D. and M.D are rapidly reducing and risking the field of gastroenterology. Physician-scientists, famously known as M.D spend most of their lifetime researching in the laboratory. The efforts of physician-scientists are essential and help in narrowing the gap that exists between translational research and scientific applications in different areas, in particular, intestinal and liver diseases (LaMont, 1999). The reduced number of M.Ds gets attributed to economic instabilities since most medical graduates keep seeking for clinical careers that pay better salary and guarantee short-time success to them. It has been difficult to convince physicians to consider research as an alternative professional choice. The continued dependence on Medicaid and Medicare funds has shifted funds attention to patient care plans, and this dramatically reduces funds allocated for research purposes. Today, the gastroenterology technology needed is highly sophisticated and requires knowledgeable and highly skilled physicians with over six years’ experience in doing digestive diseases research (LaMont, 1999). While the NIH and the federal government support for research programs advances, potential researchers are focused on pursuing extensive research on conditions that affect the environmental population.
Approach and Results
This policy brief is based on research done by physician-scientists on the applications of genome studies to identify endangered species and its protection in the environment. The scientists used simple random sampling technique in the identification of the endangered species. Also, the use of DNA sequencing technologies and Illumina HiSeq 2000 was engaged in determining their parallel samples sequences. The research hypothesis was that massively parallel sequencing helps in facilitating genomic analysis of history, demography, evolution, and population better than using the Sanger sequencing technique (Perry, 2014). The scientists noted that parallel sequencing research is applicable in non-human species research. The authors sampled their data by adopting the conventional DNA separation methods of ligation, extraction, PCR amplification, and fragmentation. Illumina HiSeq was applied in place of Sanger sequencing; this enabled one-time DNA fragment generation. In their research, the scientists identified allelic dropout as a common challenge of the Illumina HiSeq for single nucleotide polymorphism. Also, the authors determined that the sequencing needs to get done in multiple times on every nucleotide to raise confidence in accurately getting the right SNP at all chromosomes loci. Utilizing numerous sequencing rounds ensured that the probability of correctly sequencing the genotype was high at one-time (Perry, 2014). DNA capture for non-invasive samples and restriction site associated sequencing as the primary representation methods of lowering DNA sequencing. These two methods enabled the authors to undertake genome analysis for varying populations by targeting only a fraction of the whole genome of an organism.
Results: Summary of Known Facts
For the purposes of this policy brief, the results of the study provide practical applications of the research such individuals’ identification, paternity tests, and genetic population structure studies (John, 2004). Parallel sequencing and computational analysis of large size data are costly for the study. Further studies could be dependent on genomic sequencing for genetic engineering and the establishment of real human species. This policy brief presents a perfect chance of recognizing human DNA complexity and how polymorphism may get adapted for different environmental and habitats conditions (Juliet et al., 2009). This would help in artificially controlling evolution hence enhancing species survival. If scientists eliminate all genome analysis biases, parallel sequencing will have a bright future. Recent human research by scientists have identified the basis of human genetic diseases, and the study results can help in a proper understanding of cancer as well as other genetic mutations that expose people to certain dangerous diseases. This policy brief gives sound ideas and opinions that scientific researchers consider as the most significant hope for human genome if appropriately applied (John, 2004). In the context of endangered species, this policy brief produces a thematic issue and calls for a better understanding of the human DNA to help in genetic engineering and increase human control over evolution.
Enhanced state and NIH role in species conservation are not treated as a virtuous end in of itself. The policy brief identified how diatom communities respond to different environmental conditions based on their ecological requirements, taxonomic composition, and percentages of endangered species (Falasco, Piano, & Bona, 2016). Primarily, the research producing this brief focused on the Mediterranean basin due to its biodiversity of endemic species that are threatened with extinction. Physician-scientists research majored in investigating the diatom communities to equip them with microorganisms’ knowledge from ecological and taxonomic references of examining diatoms biodiversity, and the endangered species in spring and summer. The authors identified various springs in differing locations based on the sites and anthropogenic pressures. To study the behavior of flora in the summer season, sampling was done in dry seasons and was characterized by the permanent and intermittent flow of rivers in the summer season (Falasco, Piano, & Bona, 2016). Oxygen, river depth, pH, water conductivity, and flow velocity were the used variables. The results of the study highlighted the increase of planktonic and aerophilous species in intermitted flow ecosystems. Generalized Kinner Mixed statistical models were used in testing the microhabitat models under a Poisson distribution. Flow velocity was the major factor that contributed to the determination of endangered species population in the environment. Flow instability and habitat fragmentation remained as the main threats to endangered species survival (Falasco, Piano, & Bona, 2016). Endangered species record a higher response to ecological disturbances when compared to functional traits, and this is profoundly influenced by harsh environmental conditions.
Implications and Recommendations
This policy brief remains of high significance in comprehending the preservation of endangered species in the environment. Having sufficient knowledge on environmental issues is essential, and influences endangered species survival in the habitats, and human activities do not influence these habitats. Also, understanding Mediterranean basin diatoms provides significant insight into microhabitat management which is more applicable in tropical regions when assessing species existence and survival under fierce environmental factors. Therefore, saving endangered species in different microhabitats require an application of this study concepts in a more skilled and knowledgeable manner by physician-scientists.
- Falasco, E., Piano, E., & Bona, F. (2016). Diatom flora in Mediterranean streams: Flow intermittency threatens endangered species. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(14), 2965-2986. doi:10.1007/s10531-016-1213-8 (Scientific research report; University of Turin ;Biodiversity and conservation)
- John, P. (2004). Social and Environmental Influences on Endangered Species: A Cross-National Study. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 79-107. doi=10.1.1.626.2399&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Juliet Brodie, Robert A. Andersen, Masanobu Kawachi, and Alan J. K. Millar (2009). Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia: September 2009, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 423-438. doi: doi/abs/10.2216/09-21.1?code=iphy-site
- LaMont, J. (1999). Endangered species. Gastroenterology, 117(1), 5-5. doi:10.1016/S0016 5085(99)70540-8 (Editor’s report; The American Gastroenterology Association; Physician-scientists and medical research)
- Perry, G. (2014). The promise and practicality of population genomics research with endangered species. International Journal of Primatology: The Official Journal of the International Primatological Society, 35(1), 55-70. doi:10.1007/s10764-013-9702-z (Research paper; International Journal of Primatology; DNA sequencing and population genetics).