2315ENV Urban Ecology and Biodiversity

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2315ENV Urban Ecology and Biodiversity

Depth of the Published Research

Urban wildlife animal communities consist of species that use human dominated ecosystems. The world is rapidly changing from a rural environment to an urban environment. The rapid transitioning of the world from a rural to urban environment has been causing shifts in ecology, habitat and biodiversity. The rural-urban transitioning has been exposing wildlife to new challenges which are difficult to bear for the specie abundance gradient continues to trend upwards while specie abundance continues to trend downwards (McKinney, M. L. 2002).

Although urban species differ in their utilization and exploitation of urban environments, all of them come into contact with humans either in urban-rural fridge or in the cities. The most common urban wildlife species in the US include coyotes, rock doves, house mice, raccoons, and sparrows. Urban environments keep evolving, and this restricts the number of species that survive in such cities. A combination of several traits, including relatively large brains enables these species to survive and persist in the city center in both alien and native range.

Urban ecologists focus their research on birds when testing for the effects of urban environments on wildlife survival. Research results by Kark’s reveal that “Urban adapters and exploiters primarily differ in the migratory status and social structure: exploiters were significantly more social than urban adapters” (Kark et al., 2007). Clear trends have also been witnessed for dietary preferences along a gradient of increasing urbanization in Jerusalem, in that, as urbanization increases, the ratio of granivorous species also increased whereas the number of species that feed on invertebrates keeps reducing (Kark etal., 2007).

On the other side, neither relative birds size of brain nor their behavioral flexibility, as determined through feeding innovations, significantly varied among urban exploiters and adapters in Israel (Kark eta l., 2007). The essay aims at explaining the characteristics of successful urban species.


Characteristics of Successful Urban Species

Urban species survive in the city landscapes due to various attributes. Successful urban species are considered to contain a higher tolerance of human behavior disturbances. Urban ecologists argue that successful urban species have the ability to change their behavior and adapt to major rural to urban environmental disturbances and changes (Ditchkoff, Saalfeld, & Gibson, 2006). Also, these species are considered to be strong competitors and able to exclude themselves from the native species. Further, successful urban species are believed to be generalists with regard to habitat and food, and may consume human food sources such as pet food, garbage, and birdfeeders. Based on this brief, the main characteristics of a successful urban species include….Continue Reading….




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