Academic English Skills Coursework 1

Academic English Skills Coursework 1

Academic English Skills Coursework 1: Source Evaluation and Essay Outline

Title:

The UN estimates in 2017, one in six adults in the Planet still cannot read or write. 99% of them live in developing countries and two thirds are women. Compare and contrast the literacy rates for men and women in two developing countries and discuss the reasons for their differences.

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Part 1: Source Evaluation [Explanation of why you have selected the sources for use.]

Complete the table below for SIX sources you have found which are reliable and relevant for your essay.

EVALUATION 1

Reference:

UNICEF. (2018, July). Literacy among youth is rising, but young women lag behind. Literacy Rates – UNICEF Data, 2-8. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://data.unicef.org/topic/education/literacy/

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

This source has been published by the UNICEF, and explains that literacy rates among the youth are rising; but young women are still lagging behind.  The UNICEF is a reputable global organization that capitalizes in research networks, policy making, international expertise, and strengthening institutional collaboration for regional academic progress.

The UNICEF data is based on both young women and men aged between 15-24 years. The data used was obtained in 2018, thus a very recent and reliable source. No external sources are cited in this report thus lacking some credibility. BUT, the use of comparable statistics with a reasonable age gap makes the data relevant and credible.

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

This source provides a reasonable data about literacy rates between young men and women aged between 15 to 24 years.  As per the data, literacy rates among women and men are the true test for a successful education system. When the trend is positive, then more educational opportunities are created and vice versa. However, the rate at which women’s literacy levels are raising is less when compared to that of young men in the developing nations.

Useful points made in the text are:

  • Literacy growth rates for young women lag behind when compared to that of young men in developing countries
  •  Youth literacy levels in the developing countries perfectly portray the quality of education system used
  • Young women account for 59 percent of total illiterate youth population in the developing countries

 

EVALUATION 2

Reference:  UNESCO. (2014, January 29). One in four young people in developing countries unable to read, says UN. The Guardian, 6-18. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jan/29/illiteracy-education-young-people-developing-countries

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

 

This source is published by the UNESCO, and talks about illiteracy levels in developing countries.  The UNESCO is a reputable UN’s scientific, educational, and a cultural body that advocates for fair and equal access to education and measures educational progress towards unleashing global goals.

According to the report, one in four young people in developing countries is unable to read. The report cites literacy levels ten developing countries of ten countries. No other academic citations are cited in this report, but the information is more current and this increases its relevance and credibility.

 

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

 

This UNESCO report discusses the illiteracy levels in ten developing countries. According to UNESCO, literacy rates among youths in developing countries are rising, but still women lag behind. The report warns that access to poor quality education has created the illiteracy legacy in many developing countries. Poor quality of education offered is holding back literacy growth in these countries. The source argues that almost two thirds of illiterate adults in the developing countries are women- and this percent has remained constant since 1990. The source argues that, if this trend advances, the poorest young women in these countries will not achieve universal literacy goals until 2072.

 

Useful points made in the text

·         Access to education is not just the crisis, poor quality of education is holding back literacy

·         Two thirds of illiterate adults in developing countries are women

·         Adult education and women literacy suffer from neglect and lack of gender equity measures in developing nations

 

 

EVALUATION 3

Reference:  

Vann. (2012, October 28). Gender Disparities in Kenya. Kenyaplex, 20-35. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://www.kenyaplex.com/resources/5627-gender-disparities-in-kenya.aspx

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

 

Vann is the author of this source and talks about education gender disparities in Kenya, one of the developing nations. The author published this article in the Kenyaplex- a Kenyan website where screened and evaluated articles are published. This website is highly reputable and accountable. The study was article was published in 2012, and thus recent and containing relevant information to the context. Thus, Vann’s article is reliable enough for use in this study.

 

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

 

This article focuses on explaining gender disparities in Kenya. According to Vann, gender disparities in Kenya are portrayed in education through the unfair and unequal access to schooling. The article states that more male students that their female counterparts have access to quality education. As a result, female students perform poorly than male students- and thus unable to proceed with advanced education.

Useful points made in the text

·         In Kenya- a developing country, gender disparity is evidenced through unequal access to education between male and female students

·         More male students have access to schooling than female counterparts

·         High illiteracy levels in women have contributed to their underrepresentation in governmental decision making

 

 

EVALUATION 4

Reference:

Abdussalam, A. (2018, July 30). Young adult literacy rate in Nigeria (State by State). Literacy Rate among Young Women and Men in Nigeria Journal, 1-30. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://educeleb.com/young-adult-literacy-rate-in-nigeria/

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

This is an academic journal which has been peer-reviewed and published by EduCeleb.com, a highly reputable Nigerian institute of research. The information published by Abdussalam in 2018, and thus very recent. The content of the article is fully referenced to the literature in other academic sources. It is based on state by state analysis thus highly credible and objective in the context of this research.

 

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

 

This source is relevant to the title in that a detailed discussion of young adult literacy rates in Nigeria, a developing country is achieved. The source compares the literacy rates between young men and women in Nigeria based on a state by state analysis. Evidences presented in the article show that the rate of women literacy nationally is 59.3 percent while that of men is 70.9 percent.

 

Useful points made in the text

·         Illiteracy levels among young Nigerians are more on women than on their male counterparts

·         Gender equality and education has prejudice over women

·         Gender based discrimination in education systems need to be eliminated in Nigeria

 

 

EVALUATION 5

Reference:

Isabella, R. (2016, March 7). Educating Women in Developing Countries. The Blog, 1-14. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://borgenproject.org/educating-women-developing-areas/

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

The information documented in this source has been published in Google books, UNICEF, UN, and the World Bank periodical journals. All these platforms are highly reputable in the field of research. In the source, data from other relevant Google books has been quoted and this increases its credibility. Also, the source was published in 2016, thus more recent and highly reliable. Further, the source has only published relevant data to the topic under study.

 

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

 

This source argues that the right of women to the access of quality education has been violated in developing countries especially Kenya and Nigeria. The source discusses women’s literacy rates, their school enrolment both primary and secondary, and the number of dropouts’ cases. Measures to defend women’s right to education have been ignored, and thus increasing their illiteracy rates in developing nations.

Useful points made in the text

·         Inability to educate women has contributed to global poverty in developing countries

·         Females are underrepresented in both school enrolment and attendance in most developing nations

·         The number of school dropouts for women in developing countries is more than that of men

 

 

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EVALUATION 6

Reference:

Ross, C. (2014, September 10). Digital Literacy in the Developing World: A Gender Gap. Global Digital Citizen, Leadership, Technology, 1-16. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/digital-literacy-in-the-developing-world-a-gender-gap

How do you know this source is suitable for academic use? Refer to the currency, authority, purpose, reliability of evidence or data, objectivity, use of expected academic conventions.

The information of this source is published in the Global Digital Citizen, Leadership, and Technology Journal. The author presents it as a peer-reviewed academic article whose relevance and use in decision making by governments cannot be ignored. Other academic sources are cited in the source to increase relevance and credibility. Also, the journal was published in 2014, making it a more recent research whose objectivity is highly reliable in data collection.

 

How is the source relevant to your title? What are the useful points / arguments made in the text?

 

The source discussed the existing gender gap in the field of education whose effect is felt mostly in the developing nations. In the 21st Century, access to quality education for women has never been at the same level to that of men. The inequity gap increases illiteracy levels to women- something which contributed to lack of economic development in the developing countries.

Useful points made in the text

 

·         Two thirds of women in developing countries do not have proper access to education

·         Access to internet for both men and women is unequal- with women being limited the access that continued illiteracy

·         Inequity gap largely exists in the access to education in all developing nations

 

 

Part 2: Essay Outline

Provide a clear plan of your essay, including the key points you will include, and the sources you will use to support your points.

Title:

The UN estimates in 2017, one in six adults in the Planet still cannot read or write. 99% of them live in developing countries and two thirds are women. Compare and contrast the literacy rates for men and women in two developing countries and discuss the reasons for their differences.

 

Plan for overall structure
Introduction
P1. Define literacy rates from men and women (compare and contrast between Kenyan and Nigerian gender literacy rates)
P2. Discuss reasons why women lag behind in literacy levels when compared to men in these two developing countries
P3. Counter argument and rebuttal 1: Government and NGOs approaches to ending gender inequality to access of education in developing nations
P4. Argument 2: Legal case of government and NGOs advocating for equal rights to the access of quality education
P5. Argument 3: The ethical and CSR case for government and the NGOs taking some responsibility for increasing women literacy
Conclusion

 

 

Introductory paragraph structure
Background ·         Increasing equal rights to access of quality education

·         Rising literacy levels for women to match men in educational paths to success

·         Access to quality education by women boosts their participation in governmental decision making

Outline & Thesis statement

 

 

This essay will compare and contrast the differences in literacy rates for women and men in Nigeria and Kenya and discuss the reasons for these differences.

I will conclude that the government in partnership with education NGOs formulate policies that advocate for equal right to access of education for both women and men.

 

Paragraph 1 Topic sentence

 

Equal right to the access of quality education  can be achieved through various ways;

Supporting points Evidence / example/ data Citation
·         The government should set laws that defend women’s right to the access of quality education just like men.

·         Also, the NGOs need to educate the society on the importance of educating women to eradicate the societal negativity.

·         Additionally, women associations should fight and defend their right to education.

 

The Kenyan government has set laws that ensure equal access to education. In the 2018 KCSE exams, the top candidate was a girl, with 46 percent of girls doing the examination. The UNICEF has gone an extra mile to sponsoring most Nigerian girls to access education. Other private institution like Equity Bank Limited sponsors over 200 girls to secondary schools each year.

 

 

 

(Vann, 2012)
Concluding  / linking sentence

If the government, NGOs, and private institutions actively participate in defending women’s right to access of education- this will bolster economic growth and decision making.

 

 

Paragraph 2 Topic sentence

Although the UNESCO report suggests that one quarter of women still wallowing under illiteracy, this statistic is not similar in Nigeria and Kenya, the rate differs; Kenya 40 percent and Nigeria 63 percent. But, what are the reasons being these high illiteracy levels in women than men?

Support Evidence / example/ data Citation
·         Discrimination against the women gender to their right of access to education

·         Most government heads are men who make decisions that favour their gender

·         Poverty levels and outdated education cultures in developing countries

 

 

 

Comparatively, approximately 63 percent of young Nigerian women are illiterate while 40 percent of Kenyan women are illiterate.

 

 

 

(Abdussalam, 2018)

(UNESCO, 2014)

Concluding  / linking sentence

Therefore, the major causes of gender imbalance in education are discrimination, poor representation of womn in policy making, and outdated education cultures.

 

Paragraph 3 Topic sentence

Despite the evidence that discrimination against women access to quality education contributes to poverty and economic failure, some private institutions, governments, and NGOs have been reluctant in forming policies to end this prejudice.

 

Support Evidence / example/ data Citation
·         The society’s approach to ending gender imbalance in education is victim blaming

·         Some governments and private institutions in developing nations are guilty of women’s illiteracy

·         While NGOs advocate for equal access to education by both gender, their tangible participation is questionable

 

Until the 2010 new constitution in Kenya, the one third gender rule never existed. This is evidence that Kenyan government was reluctant on advocating for women rights. The UN report of 2017 suggests that 99 percent of women in developing countries are illiterate- but there is zero initiative for resolving this menace by the UN.

 

 

 

(UNICEF, 2018)

(Ross, 2014)

(Vann, 2012)

Concluding  / linking sentence

 

It is clear that women are not responsible for their lack of equal right to the access of quality education in the developing countries.

 

Paragraph 4 Topic sentence

If it is not the sole responsibility of women to fight for the right to education, then the question of who takes the blame arises. The government, NGOs and private institutions should actively advocate for and legally defend women’s right to education.

Support Evidence / example/ data Citation
 

Educated women are productive in the economy

The importance of equal right to access education is presenting both sexes to equal life opportunities

Equal enrolment opportunities to primary and secondary schools should be legally documented

 

 

In the developed economies such as the US, women are exposed to similar education opportunities like men. As a result, approximately 36 percent of America’s economy is built by women. In most companies of developed countries, a 50-50 percent number of workforce on the basis of gender is witnessed; mostly in the UK firms. (UNESCO, 2014)

(Amy & David, 2017)

(Claudia, 2013)

Paragraph 5 Topic sentence

If developing countries, in particular Kenya and Nigeria, want to boost economic growth and reduce poverty; then access to education must be an equal right to both sexes

Support Evidence / example/ data Citation
·         It is an ethical and an effective CSR act when the government and the NGOs give back to the society through equal right to education access laws, policies, and measures.

·         The government, private organizations, and NGOs needs to support women in their education

·         Supporting girls in education motivates the women gender- and this creates a path to economic success in the developing nations

 

 

Today, the Kenyan constitution requires that at least one third of employees in every company be women. The education system is free, and both girls and boys attend this system. In Nigeria, private institutions like banks have given back to the society by sponsoring girls to education.

 

 

(Claudia, 2013)

(Vann, 2012)

(Abdussalam, 2018)

Conclusion

 

In conclusion, women cannot be blamed of their illiteracy and the increased lack of access to quality education when compared to their male counterparts in the developing countries. Governments in developing countries have been reluctant and ignorant on the issue of equal right to the access of education. Therefore, governments should partner with NGOs, individuals, and other private institutions to set laws that defend women’s right to the access of education. If this is done, literacy levels will increase and thus increase economic growth.

 

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Part 3: Sources

Write a reference list for at least EIGHT sources which you have found to inform and support your essay.

Abdussalam, A. (2018, July 30). Young adult literacy rate in Nigeria (State by State). Literacy Rate among Young Women and Men in Nigeria Journal, 1-30. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://educeleb.com/young-adult-literacy-rate-in-nigeria/

Amy, A., & David, T. (2017, July 7). Digital literacy in the developing world: a gender gap. The Conversation, 1-20. Retrieved January 8, 2018, from http://theconversation.com/digital-literacy-in-the-developing-world-a-gender-gap-28650

Claudia, S. (2013, June 25). Male and Female Literacy Rates by Country. Index Mundi Blog Journal, 1-46. Retrieved January 8, 2018, from https://www.indexmundi.com/blog/index.php/2013/06/25/male-and-female-literacy-rates-by-country/

Isabella, R. (2016, March 7). Educating Women in Developing Countries. The Blog, 1-14. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://borgenproject.org/educating-women-developing-areas/

Ross, C. (2014, September 10). Digital Literacy in the Developing World: A Gender Gap. Global Digital Citizen, Leadership, Technology, 1-16. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/digital-literacy-in-the-developing-world-a-gender-gap

UNESCO. (2014, January 29). One in four young people in developing countries unable to read, says UN. The Guardian, 6-18. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jan/29/illiteracy-education-young-people-developing-countries

UNICEF. (2018, July). Literacy among youth is rising, but young women lag behind. Literacy Rates – UNICEF Data, 2-8. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://data.unicef.org/topic/education/literacy/

Vann. (2012, October 28). Gender Disparities in Kenya. Kenyaplex, 20-35. Retrieved January 8, 2019, from https://www.kenyaplex.com/resources/5627-gender-disparities-in-kenya.aspx

 

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