Evidence-Based Practice in Health
Step 1 – Asking a compelling question: This step requires the researcher to pose a clinical question using the PICOT framework. In reference to module 1, the identified clinical question is, “In adults aged 65 y/o and above with Alzheimer’s disease (P), how does nonpharmacological therapy (I) compared with no form of therapy (C) lower behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (O) for a period of four (4) weeks?” This assists a researcher to find the best evidence related to the problem at hand.
Step 2 – Searching the literature: This involves key literature search using search approved search databases and keywords. Examples of approved databases include PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Keywords related to the clinical question include Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, BPSD, therapy, dementia-related agitation, and nonpharmacological therapy.
Step 3 – Appraising the evidence: In this step, the researcher critiques the literature. The factors to consider include study design, study size, internal and external validity, study results, and study specificity.
Step 4 – Selecting the best evidence: The researcher selects the best available evidence based on validity, reliability, and consistency of the article into the clinical question. The most valid and reliable articles should be selected.
Step 5 – Linking evidence with experience and client values: This step involves integrating the critical appraisal with one’s clinical expertise as well as the patient’s unique values, biology, preferences, and circumstances.
Step 6 – Developing an Action Plan: The action plan considers the values, preferences, and circumstances of the patient. Depending with the clinician’s expertise, the action plan considers the most suitable treatment interventions.
Step 7 – Implementing findings: Upon the critical appraisal of the validity and reliability of the interventions into the clinical issue, the findings are applied to clinical decision-making.
Step 8 – Evaluation of results: This involves the monitoring and analyzing of the study results after implementing the decision. Gathering feedback informs ways of improving patient outcomes.