LIN 150- Race and Ethnicity in US

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LIN 150- Race and Ethnicity in US

LIN 150- Language, Race, and Ethnicity in the U.S. and Its Territories

Observation, Concepts, and Theories (OCT) Log Template

Instructions: Please use this template to complete your OCT log. Refer to the separate instructions and rubric posted in the “Writing Assignments” folder on Blackboard for further information. Do not forget to CITE using proper formatting, for both references and in-text citations. This part of the assignment is worth up to 4 points.


References (cited using APA style, click on hyperlink to see formatting):

Nicki, L. C. (2018). Definition of Racial Formation: Omi and Winant’s Theory of Race as a Process. ThoughtCo., 1-18.

Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2017). Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Adventure Works Press.



This study analyzes how racial formation theory frames the meaning of race. In this study, racial formation is explained as the process that results from the interplay between social structure and daily life activities. In the book, the meaning of race and its categories is derived from racial formation process (Omi & Winant, 2017). As per the analysis, racial projects are observed to connect the meaning of race in a certain discursive practice as well as the approaches where social structures and daily experiences are organized racially.

No race wants to be ridiculed in any platforms; all races want an equal and fair treatment by the society. In factoring racism, race, and their effects on people, affirmative actions have been taken to defend and fight for the meaning and importance of race in the society (Nicki, 2018). Educational researches reveal that racial trends are witnessed in educational institutions, workplaces, and other areas. All arguments observed in this book clearly fit to other personal definitions and experiences of race and race projects. LIN 150- Race and Ethnicity in US


Race- A group of people distinguished from the other people based on physical attributes such as skin color.

In understanding race, the article uses the term “racial project,” the simultaneous representation, explanation, and interpretation of various racial dynamics, and the effort of reorganizing and redistributing resources based on racial lines. According to (Omi & Winant, 2017), there are contradictory, complimentary, and competing racial projects that rival in explaining race and its role in the modern society.  In the article, racial project is presented to exist in several levels that range from interactions among people, everyday common sense, and institutional and community levels; and this is a good example.

Racism – Act of prejudice and discrimination against a group of people due to race;  

Nicki (2018) argues that racial bias can be expressed in legislation, political issues, stereotypes, and media representations. In political arena, neoconservative racial projects are a good example of racial bias as they deny racial equity to certain people in the society. In Michelle Alexander’s The New Crow, “the race-neutral drug war has been designed in a racist manner because of racial bias in legal proceedings, policing, and sentencing.


Folk Theory vs. Critical Theory – Critical race theory targets and examines culture and society on the basis of race, power, and law intersection. Folk theory is typically witnessed in natural sciences whose primary role is bringing harmony, coherence, and neutrality.

In the article, folk theory is manifest in the instance where the author states that some racial projects are progressive, benign, and anti-racist (Omi & Winant, 2017). The author states that any racial project which represent a given group of people as deviant or less important in the society is against the folk theory. The liberal racial projects that value the importance of race and ensure activist-focused governance policies are a good example of folk theory in practice.

On the other hand, racial projects in the society are greatly influenced by politics, law, and power (Nicki, 2018). As a result, there is a high chance of going contrary to civil rights by the government, and this is critical race theory. For example, the neoconservative racial projects done by the government in the society to deny certain races the right to enjoy their rights as humans. Here, colorblind racial policies and politics dictate society projects.


According to Omi and Winant, race is a process of social construction (Omi & Winant, 2017). In the article, the concept of race comes from sociological theory focused on the connections between how race is shaped or shapes the social structure.  This concept comes from racial formation theory. In showing race as a social construction, the author further uses other theories such as the critical race theory and folk theory

In the article, the racial formation theory has been greatly referenced in explaining race, racism, and the factors that contribute to racism. According to (Omi & Winant, 2017), racial formation theory is a representation of social structures through media, ideas, imagery, and common sense. The author further uses the critical race theory to justify the relationship between law, politics, and power with race. The use of folk theory is also evidenced, although this is based on natural science and thus highly subjective. This makes the critical theories more valid and strong that the folk theories for critical theories are more objective and applicable in the modern society.


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