Inducing Angiogenesis Essay
Angiogenesis is a critical progression step that entails the development of new blood vessels from the previous arrangement. Multicellular organisms depend on a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen through vasculature, in order to support oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP efficiently, and for metabolic homeostasis maintenance. The pro- and anti-angiogenic factors play a counterbalancing role in sustaining the normal vasculature quiescent state of an adult and also in favoring angiogenic inhibitions. It is possible to transiently stimulate vascular growth if extended vasculature is needed, via this balance modification. This argument greatly corresponds to the angiogenic switch as shown in figure 1…Continue Reading….
Endogenous Angiogenic Inhibitors
Suppressive signals evoked by TSM-1 are potent in counteracting proangiogenic stimuli. The TSP-1 gene function is unregulated by wild-type p53 by activating and binding the TSP-1 gene promoter, and the TSP-1 is downregulated during the switch to the angiogenic phenotype. Elastase proteolytic-ally releases the endostatin portion that exists within collagen XVIII. The activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase gets obstructed thereby blocking the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases hence, angiogenesis is inhibited
Inducers of Antigionesis
PDGF, FGF, EGF, and HGF are non-specific growth agents for the pro-angiogenic activity. However, factors that contribute to Vascular Endothelial Growth (VEGFs), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D are the most essential group of endothelial-specific growth factors, which are secreted, dimeric glycoproteins. Biologically, the effects of VEGFs get regulated at multiple levels and are induced by use of three specific tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (1-3) which are optimally regulated in the process of angiogenesis. VEGFR-2 becomes activated in VEGF-A’s highest location of its concentration. One characteristic of VEGFR-2 is strong tyrosine kinase activity, and this stimulates endothelium proliferation via the pathway of PLCy/PKC/MAPK, on top of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
VEGF-Mediated Downstream Signal Transduction Cascade in Angiogenesis
For the activation of VEGF-A signaling pathway, sprouting angiogenesis regulation is required, and this controls endothelial differentiation, migration, proliferation, control and survival of vessel permeability.
Majority of chemotactic effects and VEGF mitogenic...Show More….