Counseling in Professional Context

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Counseling in Professional Context


The terms Counseling and Psychotherapy are often used interchangeably. Also referred to as talk therapy, counseling involves a series of conversations between the counselor and client. Like counseling, psychotherapy involves a series of meeting between the therapist and the client to understand an individual’s problems and recurrent feelings about an aspect. Counseling and psychotherapy focus on specific problems that affect a group of people in an attempt to resolve them (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2016). The theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy concepts assists counselors in providing these students with the right support, guidance, and advice on how to cope with the challenges and excel academically despite the challenges (Truax & Carkhuff, 2008). As a counselor, I would like to help students excel academically by offering them purposeful guidance and support to cope with their personal experience problems while studying. The essay will specifically apply two counselling and psychotherapy theories namely psychoanalytic theory and Adlerian theory in resolving classroom behavior problems by children in order to boost their academic performance and excellence.

Classroom behavior problems

Classroom behavior problems by students at school interfere with their lesson concentration and disturb other students in the class. Behavior problems at school usually overwhelm teachers, specifically novices, and some researchers consider these problems as the most difficult experience that teachers face in their every day’s work. Students who exhibit classroom behavior problems invariably need extra attention, which imposes strain on teachers and slows the pace at which lessons are administered and completed (Collins & Arthur, 2010). As a counselor, I met a student with different classroom behavior problems which I will explain below before discussing how I used counselling and psychotherapy theories in assisting the student. The student’s classroom behavior problems included:

Sensory processing disorder

According to the student’s teachers, the student had sensory processing disorder which disrupted his ability to grasp even the simple concepts taught in the normal pace used while teaching the other students. The student always walks around and talks in the wrong time while teachers are in the classroom. The student had special needs and always diverted teachers’ attention from the set class program and syllabus. My understanding is that students with this problem find it unfriendly to organize and make sense of the sensory information received by their brains in the classroom. Even normal activities confuse and overwhelm them. Additionally, such a student’s experience learning problems and prefer playing alone during recesssion…Show More…

Aggressive students

Aggressive student behavior poses a serious problem that is disruptive to a supportive and safe learning environment in the classroom setting. The student has physical aggression which makes him violent and easily tempted to hurt even young pupils. The aggression of the student in the classroom disrupts all other coursework activities and adversely affects teachers and the other classmates. The after-effects of physical fights by the student remains a sensitive issue to the other students and teachers, and this is why I am called as a counselor to offer to counsel to the student.

Inappropriate language

Inappropriate language is unexpected in a classroom setting. However, the student has been using abusive language while addressing his classmates and teachers something which offends them highly. The student uses foul language in impressing his classmates and seeking cheap attention from the teachers. However, the management of the school does not allow this to happen. Also, when angered; the student uses inappropriate words to express his displeasure and frustration to the teachers and his classmates. In cases, the teacher says have been trying to dissuade the student from swearing either in the classroom or on the playground since this depicts immorality and danger to the rest of the students (Thomas et al., 2011). This is where the role of a counselor is required. Abusing others with no fear creates anxiety in the classroom to an extent that other students feel uncomfortable studying with him in the same class.

Inattentive students

Unless appropriate approaches are taken, inattentive students fall behind their classmates and terribly fail in the exams. In certain cases, the student is believed to suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder which makes him face difficulties in controlling his overall behavior (Sharf, 2015). Teachers and his parents claim that the student has a lot of difficulties when organizing home and school work for he cannot sustain attention. When a new topic is being introduced, the student struggles to comprehend and even the simplest assignments overwhelm him. This student requires extra attention and advice from an external counselor, and this is the reason why I am conducted. There is a high chance that once I counsel him, he will be able to take school lessons important and employ all keenness required in order to grasp all concepts and stop being bored and frustrated by the coursework.


Dishonesty by students has increased in most schools. Students want to lie to teachers and parents in order to entice them for nothing. According to the teachers, this student always tells lies when asked why he is underperforming. Investigations show that he receives the best parental care and that his background cannot have affected his ability to excel in his studies. The student stretches the truth about on matters academics making it too hard for the teachers to assist him (Manning & Bucher, 2013). The other students say that he comes and reports to class late on regular basis. Once questioned by the teachers, he claims that he is never late to class. The guy has been rude and always not ready to get assisted. Due to this teachers consider it important to try out the services of an external counselor at least to counsel, guide, and advice the student to change. It is possible for the student to change and improve from his negative to positive classroom behavior if he is talked to privately by a counselor, a role which I believe will be a success when administered by me.

Application of Counselling and Psychotherapy Theories in Solving this Problem

In my counseling prospects to the student, I will refer to Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory together with Alfred Adler’s Adlerian theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Dealing with a student with the above-explained classroom behavior problems require a proper integration of counseling skills with the counseling and psychotherapy theories (Gibson, Dollarhide, & Moss, 2010). The classroom behavior problems experienced and exhibited by the student have been provided to me by the teachers, parents and his classmates as explained above. As a counselor, I will deal with the student privately, not publicly to ensure that I transform him into a responsible student in the school.

Adlerian Theory

Adlerian is a theory of counseling and psychotherapy whose application enables counselors to solve irresponsible behavior exhibited by students in the classroom. According to the theory, an educational setting can be viewed as teleological where some students feel superior than others and consider them inferior (Adler, 1982). In this instance, the teachers are dedicated to teaching the student but he is focused on dragging the coursework behind. I will refer to Adlerian theory segment of personality when counseling the student on the right ways to behave while in the classroom. This theory teaches us on the importance of being motivated by social interests, loving to be viewed as unified beings, and the essence of belongingness to a group. In addressing the problem of inappropriate language to other students, I will use Adlerian concepts about life tasks and guide the student on the importance of friendship, love, and understanding the individual self.

According to the Adlerian theory, successful adaptation to life depends on one’s interest to interact with the others.  From what the classmates told me, the student is aggressive in how he behaves in the classroom and also outside. He plays alone- this is funny. I would advise the student on the importance of diversity and teamwork during studies. Goal striving directly relates to a student’s success in relating to the rest of students. As per Adlerian, maybe the student started this behavior in his early educational ages where he formed fictional concepts about the right lifestyles (Sharf, 2015). I would explain to the student that fictional goals are unrealistic and cannot take him anywhere. In Adlerian’s theory of personality, there are different types of people in any environment. In this context, I understand that being socially useful, victimized, avoiding, ruling and a controlling student of his emotions may be difficult. Every having his styles of life whose overall patterns affect their thinking, feelings, and behavior. Therefore, using this concept in counseling student will be effective in encouraging him to conform to the new environment and culture of the school for him to excel.

In Adlerian personality behavior, perceptions guide one’s behavior. Most people engage in abnormal behavior in an attempt to protect their opinions. In this context, the student has become self-centered other than being other-centered and is believed to have no consciousness on his behavior. From the analysis, the student has not been honest with students when they want to support him. He always tells lies to protect his behavior. In Adlerian through, I will apply the concepts of safeguarding, family constellation, and inferior complex in counseling him to advance his negative behavior and embrace positive behavior (Hutchings et al., 2013). Through this, I will be able to mediate the genetic and sensory processing disorders of the student from his feedback hence use it in advising him appropriately.

Psychoanalytic Theory

In Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, human motivation is guided by the drive to seek pleasure (Freud, 1953). The basic tenets of Sigmund’s theory are defense mechanisms, stages of development, and Id, Ego, and Superego. Personally, I am a practitioner of psychoanalysis having undergone long training processes through which I am able to interpret one’s intrapsychic conflicts and other self-defeating patterns that students face in their internal struggles (Freud, 1953). The problems that student is exhibiting in the classroom are associated with is past; this creates the current classroom behavior that stems from unresolved issues that occurred in his early childhood. The sensory processing disorder exhibited by the student is associated with unresolved issues that happened in his childhood.

Emotionally, the student has been ever disturbed. According to the psychoanalytic theory, irresponsible emotional experience makes students behave irresponsibly in the classroom. The student is less concerned about listening to the teachers and also unwilling to do assignments (Garner & Waajid, 2012). He has a bad ego towards the other students and always wants to fulfill his self-interests. As a counselor and a therapist, I will alter the students’ irresponsible self-perceptions and behaviors in a way that he can become emotionally responsible in his academics as well as helping the other students. By listening to the student talk, I will be able to interpret, dreams analyze, and transference the root cause of his unconscious behavior while in the classroom. Eventually, I will make my projections as a therapist and advise him appropriately.

The psychoanalytic theory has further been categorized into two contemporary theories; self-psychology and object relations theories whose understanding helps me as a counselor in advising my clients. In reference to the object relations theory, the student could be inattentive in class due to past events that had a strong influence on his behavior when interacting with others. Eventually, I will succeed in assisting the student to interpret the present and future hence creating a more emphatic and supportive relationship between him and his parents, classmates, and teachers (Benner et al., 2012). In reference to the self-psychology theory, I will interview the student and understand the source of his ego and resilience drop when interacting with the other people. Once I receive the feedback from him, I will focus on counseling him about academic goals in order to restrict his personality and attitude in academic behavior.


Students are faced with numerous challenges while undertaking their studies in different educational environment settings. The main challenges that students experience in their academics are poor study habits, unsatisfactory peer relationships, classroom behavior problems, and conflicts with colleagues, teachers, and parents. However, the assignment analyzed and discussed classroom behavior problems in detail in order to understand the types of irresponsible classroom behavior exhibited by students and the roles of a counselor/ therapist in offering support, advice, and guidance to restructure the behavior of the affected children. The application of Adlerian and psychoanalytic theories into practice by a counselor has been closely explored and how these theories enable counselors in offering a positive and convenient support to the affected children.


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