Race Hate Crimes

Annotated Bibliography: Race Hate Crimes

Burnett, J. (2016). ‘Racial violence and the Brexit state,’ Institute of Race Relations.

The author the article addresses the issue of increased racial violence that followed the EU’s referendum results that were released on 24 June 2016. The article attempts to restore the debate on race hate crime by eliminating the misconceptions that racism is promoted by the thuggish minority who are uneducated. The author uses data from national databases in the UK through the application of online news aggregator. Importantly, the author uses 134 racist violence reported after the results of the referendum to show how the Brexit State results increased race hate crimes in the UK.

According to Burnett (2016), the referendum results of the Brexit State increased racial violence and harassment, physical attacks on homes and businesses of minority communities, and street abuses. The mistreatment of specific races has forced them to take actions of protecting their communities by being aggressive to the other races. The author views the nation-state created by the UK as a mechanism of dividing those who rightfully belong to the countries against those who do not, and thus, it enshrines racism. This resource is integral to my research given that it informs on the nature of the multicultural society that breeds racism. Using the information from the article, my topic can propose ways in which multicultural societies should exist without racial violence.

This is a student sample: ORDER YOUR PAPER NOW

Burnett, J., 2013. Britain: Racial violence and the politics of hate. Race & Class, 54(4), pp.5-21.

The author of the article explores the changing geography of violence related to race in Britain. He reveals that the government’s policies and neoliberalism have failed to address the changing demographic make-up of the UK, thus promoting cases of racial violence. The authors inform that racial violence is a type of hate crime, and hence, it has been reduced to a case of individual pathology. According to Burnett (2013), the changing definitions and parameters of dealing with the hate crime in Britain present a considerable challenge, which anti-racists have been too slow to address.

Burnett argues that the parameters of race hate violence have changed significantly within the past two decades. He asserts that racial violence has spread geographically since the crimes have been managed strategically by the private agencies and the government without involving the community. The author also maintains that the act of replacing anti-racists movements with the far Right appropriation promotes the evolution of groups of people who maintain that only the white face real racism. Also, the increased austerity measures create conditions that enhance competition among the poor, and thus, breeding racial attacks. This resource is essential to my research since it sheds light on the trend of race hate crimes and the reasons for the increased cases of the vice in Britain.

Burney, E. and Rose, G., 2002. Racist offences–how is the law working. Home office research study, 244.

The article’s authors analyzed the Crime and Disorder Act of 1998 regarding its benefits and challenges. The act introduced new guidelines for establishing offenses related to racially aggravated harassment, violence, and criminal damage. The authors note that the 1998 Act enhanced penalties to the race hate offenders, and codified the application of racial motivation as a factor in any related offense. The article draws its data from three strands of research that were complementary to each other. These research included case studies, statistical analysis of the racial violence dataset provided by the Metropolitan Police and secondary analysis of survey data.

The article provides both the benefits and the difficulties that the 1998 Act presents. The authors confirm that the act offers tools and support for the justice department and upholds the value of every citizen thereby enforcing the fight against race hate crimes. The article also identifies some difficulties with the 1998 legislation. Some of the identified challenges include policing and prosecution problems and sentencing issues. This resource is fundamental to my topic since it comprehensively analyzes one of the significant legislation that I can apply in addressing how racial hate crime can be eliminated. The article also provides my research with an opportunity to indicate better ways in which hate crime laws can be applied to root out racial violence.

Dixon, L. and Ray, L., 2007. Current issues and developments in race hate crime. Probation Journal, 54(2), pp.109-124.

Dixon and Ray (2007) proposed that the hate agenda should be used as a model of approach targeted to alleviate race hate crime. Primarily, the authors focus on determining how the criminal justice system handles both racial and hate-related offenses. The articles use a conceptual model that aims to help the criminal justice staff members to understand hate crime and the needed professional assessments, and interventions to eradicate the vice. The authors dwelt on various related topics to establish their arguments regarding the effectiveness of race hate crime interventions including race hate crime trends in the UK.

The article discusses the usefulness of existing hate crime statutes in Britain. Specifically, the authors dwelt on policy issues that control race hate crimes. These policy issues include the Steven Lawrence campaign and community cohesion. The article is relevant to my research topic since it addresses the major policy issues that shape the types of interventions used in eradicating race hate crimes. Additionally, the work provides insight into the challenges involved in dealing with race hate crime, and thus, it can enable my research to explore ways of reducing the challenges.

Home Office. 2018. “Hate Crime, England and Wales, 2017/18.” Statistical Bulletin 20/1816 October 2018.

The Home Office used hate crime statistics following the Statistics and Registration Service Act of 2007 to determine the designation of the existing data as a reflection of the national statistics. The article notes that between 2017 and 2018, the rate of hate crime offenses increased by 17%. The data site affirms that the increased rate of hate crime is partly due to the improved police recording but mostly due to terrorist attacks and EU referendum. Specifically, the hate race crimes accounted for 76% of the total hate crimes. The article also reveals that the most widely reported motivating factor of the hate crime is racial differences. Additionally, the article showed that the victims of hate crime were 36% more likely to report the incidence as compared to other crimes in two regions. Importantly, the data provided by the article is essential to my research topic since it identifies the primary reasons why racial hate violence has spiked in Europe over the past decade.

This is a student sample: ORDER YOUR PAPER NOW

Reference list

Burnett, J. (2016). ‘Racial violence and the Brexit state’, Institute of Race Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.irr.org.uk/app/uploads/2016/11/Racial-violence-and-the-Brexit-state-final.pdf

Burnett, J., 2013. Britain: Racial violence and the politics of hate. Race & Class, 54(4), pp.5-21.

Burney, E. and Rose, G., 2002. Racist offences–how is the law working. Home office research study, 244. Retrieved from: https://lemosandcrane.co.uk/resources/HO%20-%20racist%20incidents%20how%20is%20the%20law%20working.pdf

Dixon, L. and Ray, L., 2007. Current issues and developments in race hate crime. Probation Journal, 54(2), pp.109-124.

Home Office. 2018. “Hate Crime, England and Wales, 2017/18.” Statistical Bulletin 20/1816 October 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/hate-crime-england-and-wales-2017-to-2018.

Leave a Reply