Upper Urinary Tract Infections

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Upper Urinary Tract Infections

Upper urinary tract infections -pathophysiology

The infection which occurs in the upper part of the urinary tract mainly affects the kidney. In some cases, the infection might have originated from the lower urinary tract infection (LUTS). The infection also affects the ureter and it is mainly caused by pathogenic bacteria which attack the urinary tract. Common signs related with upper urinary infection include fever, chills, and flank pain (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).

Similarities and differences

The main difference between the upper UTI mainly affects the ureters and the kidney while the LUTS affects the urethra and bladder. Additionally, the upper urinary infection requires a patient to seek advanced medical services while the LUTS can be treated by the use of antibiotics. The similarities between the two infections include: they are caused by bacteria, causes pain in the areas affected. Also, both UTIs, affect the body parts associated with excretion of urine (Foxman, 2014).


Gender & age

Females are at higher risk of suffering from the urinal infection as compared to men. It is because the urethra in the female reproductive system is short and close to the anus thus increasing bacterial infection. On the other hand, men rarely suffer from the UTIs since they have long urethra which is not at risk of microorganism infection. Pregnant and women at childbearing age experiences higher risk of suffering from the urinary infections (Flores-Mireles et al .,2015)Pregnant women, experience advance changes in the body and mainly in the vulva which is close to urethra hence creating chances of urinary tract infections. The younger a person is, the higher the chances of contracting the upper and lower urinary infections (Whiteside et al., 2015)

Diagnosis and treatment

The two types of the UTI are diagnosed by analyzing blood, and urine mainstream. Several exercises such as cystoscopy, pelvic ultrasound, and pyelogram are used in the determination of any type of the urinary infection (Stein et al.,2015)The upper UTI, is treated by administering of intravenous antibiotics while lower UTI is treated by administering of oral antibiotics.


Flores-Mireles, A. L., Walker, J. N., Caparon, M., & Hultgren, S. J. (2015). Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature reviews microbiology13(5), 269.

Foxman, B. (2014). Urinary tract infection syndromes: occurrence, recurrence, bacteriology, risk factors, and disease burden. Infectious Disease Clinics28(1), 1-13.

Hammer, G. G., & McPhee, S. J. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology, (6th Ed.).

Medicine (7th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science

Stein, R., Dogan, H. S., Hoebeke, P., Kočvara, R., Nijman, R. J., Radmayr, C., & Tekgül, S. (2015). Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines. European Urology67(3), 546-558.

Whiteside, S. A., Razvi, H., Dave, S., Reid, G., & Burton, J. P. (2015). The microbiome of the urinary tract—a role beyond infection. Nature Reviews Urology12(2), 81.


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